History[ edit ] Around the 12th century, Hindustani classical music diverged from what eventually came to be identified as Carnatic classical music. Hindustani music places more emphasis on improvisation and exploring all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic music is primarily composition-based. The central notion in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or ragasung to a rhythmic cycle or tala. Noted composers such as Tansen flourished, along with religious groups like the Vaishnavites.
History[ edit ] Around the 12th century, Hindustani classical music diverged from what eventually came to be identified as Carnatic classical music.
Hindustani music places more emphasis on improvisation and exploring all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic music is primarily composition-based. The central notion in both these systems is that of a melodic mode or ragasung to a rhythmic cycle or tala. Noted composers such as Tansen flourished, along with religious groups like the Vaishnavites.
After the 16th century, the singing styles diversified into different gharanas patronized in different princely courts. AroundVishnu Narayan Bhatkhande consolidated the musical structures of Hindustani classical music, called ragasinto a number of thaats. This is a very flawed system but is somewhat useful as a heuristic.
Distinguished Hindu musicians may be addressed as pandit and Muslims as ustad. An aspect of Hindustani music going back to Sufi times is the tradition of religious neutrality: Muslim ustads may sing compositions in praise of Hindu deities and vice versa. Characteristics[ edit ] Indian classical music has seven basic notes with five interspersed half-notes, resulting in a note scale.
Unlike the note scale in Western music, the base frequency of the scale is not fixed, and intertonal gaps temperament may also vary; however, with the gradual replacement of the sarangi by the harmoniuman equal tempered scale is increasingly used.
The performance is set to a melodic pattern called a raga characterized in part by specific ascent aroha and descent avaroha sequences, which may not be identical.
Other characteristics include "king" vadi and "queen" samavadi notes and characteristic phrases pakad. In addition each raga has its natural register ambit and portamento meend rules. Performances are usually marked by considerable improvisation within these norms.
Ragas are particular ascending and descending of notes. The ragas must have at least five notes. Ragas are of three types, Ourab - five notes, Sharab - six notes, Sampurna - Seven notes.
Most of the past and present musicians of Hindustani Classical music follow the Natya Sastra of Bharatmooni and the systems introduced by Bhatkhande.
The musicians have to be very careful to avoid other ragas while playing or singing a raga. Ragas may originate from any source, including religious hymns, bhajans, folklore, folk tunes and music from outside the Indian subcontinent. As the words help to compose a poem or story, colours for a nice painting, the musical notes help to compose a raga.
The continuous playing or singing of a raga creates a mood which has an effect on the listeners and they like it.
The mood of a raga could be of various types, such as bir, sringar, romance, love, and anger. Ragas are also claimed to have specific timings of the day and night for their performance.Robert David Kaplan (born June 23, ) is an American author.
His books are on politics, primarily foreign affairs, and travel. His work over three decades has appeared in The Atlantic, The Washington Post, The New York Times, The New Republic, The National Interest, Foreign Affairs and The Wall Street Journal, among other newspapers and publications.
|Atmospheric circulation The prevailing winds of the atmospheric circulation arise because of the difference in pressure at various latitudes and act as means for distribution of thermal energy on the planet. This pressure difference is because of the differences in solar insolation received at different latitudes and the resulting uneven heating of the planet.|
|Recent Theories of the Origin of Indian Monsoon (Dynamic concept)||Kaplan's father, a truck driver for the New York Daily News instilled in him an interest in history from an early age. He attended the University of Connecticut on a swimming scholarship and earned a BA in English in|
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