The History Learning Site, 17 Mar No king had ever been executed in England and the execution of Charles was not greeted with joy. How did the English Civil War break out?
Many of those involved also had religious preferences concerning how the established church should be organized—for example, with or without bishopsand whether its style of worship would be more or less liturgical. Some of those involved advocated religious freedom, and separation of church from the state, especially the Puritans and some Congregationalists.
One result of the wars would be limited religious liberty, but the main legacy was the affirmation of the rights of Parliament—which laid the foundation for the eventual emergence of democratic government by the end of the nineteenth century.
Introduction The wars inextricably mingled with and formed part of a linked series of conflicts and civil wars between and in the kingdoms of EnglandScotland and Irelandwhich at that time shared a monarch but formed distinct countries with otherwise separate political structures.
The wars led to the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the replacement of the English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England and then with a Protectorate The monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship in England came to an end, and the victors consolidated the already-established Protestant aristocracy in Ireland.
Constitutionally, the wars established a precedent that British monarchs could not govern without the consent of Parliament. Unlike other civil wars that focused on who ruled, this war also concerned itself with the manner of governing the British Isles.
Contemporaries must have found it unthinkable that a civil war could result from the events taking place. War broke out less than forty years after the death of the popular Elizabeth I in At the accession of Charles I, England and Scotland had both experienced relative peace, both internally and in their relations with each other, for as long as anyone could remember.
Many English Parliamentarians had suspicions regarding such a move, because they feared that setting up a new kingdom might destroy the old English traditions that had bound the English monarchy. As Charles shared his father's position on the power of the crown James had described kings as "little gods on Earth," chosen by God to rule in accordance with the doctrine of the "divine right of kings"the suspicions of the Parliamentarians had some justification.
Dec 02, · The English Civil Wars () stemmed from conflict between Charles I and Parliament over an Irish insurrection. The first war was settled with Oliver Cromwell’s victory for Parliamentary. There were many other factors that played an important role in the Civil War but m Fair Use Policy; Help Centre; Social And Economic Causes Of The Civil War History Essay. Print Reference this If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the. The history of credit and banking goes back much further than the history of coins. Nevertheless the story of the origins of money goes back even further still.
Although pious and with little personal ambition, Charles demanded outright loyalty in return for "just rule. This latter trait, and a series of events, seemingly minor on their own, led to a serious break between Charles and his English Parliament, and eventually to war.
Parliament in the English constitutional framework Before the fighting, the Parliament of England did not have a permanent role in the English system of government, instead functioning as a temporary advisory committee—summoned by the monarch whenever the crown required additional tax revenue, and subject to dissolution by the monarch at any time.
Because responsibility for collecting taxes lay in the hands of the landed gentry, the English kings needed the help of that stratum of society in order to ensure the smooth collection of that revenue.
If the gentry were to refuse to collect the king's taxes, he would lack the authority to compel them. Parliaments allowed representatives of the gentry to meet, confer and send policy-proposals to the monarch in the form of Bills. These representatives did not, however, have any means of forcing their will upon the king—except by withholding the financial means he required to execute his plans.
The marriage occurred inshortly after Charles came to the throne. Charles's marriage made him a possible "Papist" supporter of papal authoritywhich gave cause for concern.
Charles also wanted to take part in the conflicts underway in Europe, then immersed in the Thirty Years' War Foreign wars required heavy expenditure, and the crown could raise the necessary taxes only with Parliamentary consent as described above.
Charles experienced even more financial difficulty when his first Parliament refused to follow the tradition of giving him the right to collect customs duties for his entire reign, deciding instead to grant it for only a year at a time.
Charles, meanwhile, pressed ahead with his European wars, deciding to send an expeditionary force to relieve the French Huguenots Protestants whom Royal French forces held besieged in La Rochelle.
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, received command of the English force. Unfortunately for Charles and Buckingham, the relief expedition failed—and Parliament opened impeachment proceedings against Buckingham. Charles responded by dissolving Parliament.
This move, while saving Buckingham, reinforced the impression that Charles wanted to avoid Parliamentary criticism of his ministers. Having dissolved Parliament and unable to raise money without it, the king assembled a new one in the elected members included Oliver Cromwell.
The new Parliament drew up the Petition of Right, and Charles accepted it as a concession in order to get his subsidy.
Amongst other things, the petition referred to the Magna Carta. During this period, Charles' lack of finances largely determined his policies. Accordingly, his government pursued peaceful policies at home and abroad, and initiated only minimal new legislative activity; Charles preferred to claim that the legitimacy of his personal rule relied on the continuity of ancient customs.
His lack of finances caused a number of problems, however. Failure to observe conventions became in some cases a finable offence for example, a failure to attend and be knighted at Charles' coronationwhile the use of patents and monopolies, and local measures such as demanding payment for illegal houses in Londoncreated ample scope for corruption and led to local discontents.
This policy relied on established law, but law that had been ignored for centuries, and so was regarded by many as an extra-Parliamentary and therefore illegal tax.
A number of prominent men refused to pay it on these grounds. Reprisals against William Prynne and John Hampden fined after losing their case by a vote of seven to five for refusing to pay ship money and for making a stand against the legality of the tax aroused widespread indignation.
However, Charles aroused the most antagonism through his religious measures.Although the Scottish Covenanters had made a significant contribution to Parliament’s victory in the first English Civil War, during the second () and third English Civil Wars (–51) they supported the king. On December 26, , Charles signed an agreement—known as the Engagement.
The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in , would have ended with the public execution of Charles.
The American Civil War Was Inevitable Essay - The Civil War between the North and South was the result of two cultures that economically, morally, and legally clashed on almost all levels. The steadily growing conflict between the two parts of the union makes it hard to pinpoint the origin or the cause of the resulting war.
This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the antiwar movement, with a separate section on protest songs.
John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. During the American Civil War, music played a prominent role on both sides of the conflict: Union and adriaticoutfitters.com the American Civil War battlefield, different instruments including bugles, drums, and fifes were played to issue marching orders or sometimes simply to boost the morale of one's fellow soldiers.
Singing was also employed not only as a recreational activity but as a release from.